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Metaphors We Live By Lakoff Livres Metaphors We Live By George Lakoff And Mark Johnson Suggest That Basic Metaphors Used In Everyday Speech Not Only Affect The Way We Communicate Ideas, But Actually Structure Our Perceptions And Understandings From The Beginning Full Description Metaphors We Live By By George Lakoff Goodreads The Now Classic Metaphors We Live By Changed Our Understanding Of Metaphor And Its Role In Language And The Mind Metaphor, The Authors Explain, Is A Fundamental Mechanism Of Mind, One That Allows Us To Use What We Know About Our Physical And Social Experience To Metaphors We Live By, Lakoff, Johnson The Now Classic Metaphors We Live By Changed Our Understanding Of Metaphor And Its Role In Language And The Mind Metaphor, The Authors Explain, Is A Fundamental Mechanism Of Mind, One That Allows Us To Use What We Know About Our Physical And Social Experience To Metaphors We Live By PDF By George Lakoff Book Free Download Or Read Online Metaphors We Live By Pdf EPUB Book The First Edition Of This Novel Was Published In , And Was Written By George Lakoff The Book Was Published In Multiple Languages Including English Language, Consists Ofpages And Is Available In Paperback Format Metaphors We Live By, Lakoff And Johnson The Metaphors We Live By By George Lakoff And Mark Johnson Our Selection Comprises Chapters And Part Ofof Metaphors We Live ByCONCEPTS WE LIVE BY Metaphor Is For Most People Device Of The Poetic Imagination And The Rhetorical Flourish A Shu Shu METAPHORS We Live By Cabrillo College Metaphor We Have Found, On The Contrary, That Metaphor Is Pervasive In Everyday Life, Not Just In Language But In Thought And Action Our Ordinary Conceptual System, In Terms Of Which We Both Think And Act, Is Fundamentally Metaphorical In Nature The Concepts Metaphors We Live By Douban People Use Metaphors Every Time They Speak Some Of Those Metaphors Are Literary Devices For Making Thoughtsvivid Or Entertaining But Most Are Muchbasic Than That They Re Metaphors We Live By, Metaphors We Use Without Even Realizing We Re Using Them Metaphors We Live By New York University For Example, Orientational Metaphors Are Found In Our Ordinary Language And Are Part Of The Spatial Organization Of Our Lives When One Says, He Dropped Dead Or He S At The Peak Of Health, One Is Using The Orientational Metaphor That We Live By Health And Life Are Up Sickness And Death Are DownMetaphors We Live By The Now Classic Metaphors We Live By Changed Our Understanding Of Metaphor And Its Role In Language And The Mind Metaphor, The Authors Explain, Is A Fundamental Mechanism Of Mind, One That Allows Us To Use What We Know About Our Physical And Social Experience To

10 thoughts on “Metaphors We Live By

  1. says:

    Understanding One s Native TongueIt turns out there were really good existential reasons for paying attention in primary school English All that business about grammar and figures of speech is actually essential for getting on in the world quite apart from speaking proper This classic from the 1970 s shows why in an entertaining and convincing way.Language is a odd thing It looks like something neutral, a tool for doing things, some good, some not so good depending on its user But language is crafty it seems to have its own interests than ours at heart The conspiracy of language becomes obvious as soon as one recognizes the fact that words are defined solely in terms of other words, never in terms of things outside of language This is a difficult idea to hold onto, mainly because it suggests that none of us really knows what we might be talking about.The way this works in daily life is by our inevitable and pervasive use of metaphors to describe the world and what we re doing in it We fall in love, offer food for thought, try not to waste time, and build theories We don t even notice that these sorts of activities are metaphorical And the essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another Of course, the things in question are always other words So language fools us into thinking its not even there.Metaphors have their own agendas For example we conduct an argument like we re engaging in a war We make defensible claims so that our thesis is not demolished by an attack by our opponents These expressions are not without content or effect Through them, at least in our Western European culture, we know that there are winners and losers in an argument just as in war There are certainly other ways to consider argument let s say as leading to consensus in the culture of the North American Plains Indians for example but not for us We re stuck with argumentative combat.The pervasiveness of metaphors really can t be overstated They are literally in almost every sentence we utter Our brains are effectively hardwired by them Metaphors We Live By documents hundreds of what might be called root metaphors which ramify uncontrollably throughout the language From Time is Money to Happy is Up to a sight which Fills our Field of Vision, without a shared grasp of these metaphors, communication would be impossible.And then things get even complicated Metaphors not only morph, they also breed So Love is a physical force, but it is also a patient to be cared for, a madness to be overcome, a form of magic which entrances, and even a war within ourselves and with the beloved So called Conduit metaphors form composites which may hide their origins in language rather than real things Thus ideas or meanings are metaphorically physical objects and linguistic expressions are metaphorical containers for these objects and we communicate these containers by sending them from person to person as if they were parcels This last step, sending may not look metaphorical but it is indeed so, just in disguise as something that is actually done.The idea of rationality itself, Reason as the philosophers call it, starts to look just a tad unreasonable when considered in terms of the metaphors involved Look at the ambiguity of what we think of as reason sufficient to compel intellectual assent because I m bigger than you intimidation because if you don t, I ll threat because I m the boss, authority because you re stupid, insult because you usually do it wrong, belittling because I have as much right as you do challenging authority because I love you evading the issue because if you will, I ll bargaining because you re so much better at it flattery Whether one agrees with the linguistic and philosophical foundations of Metaphors We Live By, the book is essential reading for any educated person It is direct, understandable, and immense fun It is also revelatory Give it a go, metaphorically speaking.

  2. says:

    I first read parts of this book nearly 20 years ago I meant to get my hands on the whole thing back then too and read it from cover to cover, but for one reason or another I never seemed to get around to it This is a pity, as it is the sort of book I really ought to have read in full back then and perhaps again a couple of times since This really is an interesting book.The main idea is that rather than metaphors being curious literary devices, that they in fact are central to how we understand the world Many of the conclusions proposed in this book are fairly standard theory now V.S Ramachandran makes it clear that metaphors play a central role in our understanding how the brain works, although he goes somewhat further than Lakoff and Johnson in putting a lot of the reason why we use them in the first place down to synaesthesia Lakoff and Johnson are concerned to stress that we would not be able to understand the world at all without our ability to create, understand and deploy metaphors.Metaphor is distinguished from metonymy where the part takes the place of the whole as in, he s in dance or the ham sandwich on two also wants a coke They make the interesting point that when we say things like we need some new faces around here this is partly because faces are the most important distinguishing feature people have and that, foe instance, handing someone a photo of your son which shows all of his body from the neck down is really not showing someone a photo of your son The key idea is that metaphors structure how we think about the world The best examples of this are those around love and arguments In our culture we talk about arguing as if it was about war We dig in to our positions, we take sides, we prepare for someone s onslaught, we shoot down their arguments, we make tactical retreats and we defend our ground In particularly acrimonious arguments we may even hurt the feelings of some of those around us and in these days of military euphemism we may refer to these people as collateral damage As the authors say, just what would it mean if we changed our metaphors about arguments What if arguments were no longer wars, but rather dances Dances where someone leads and the other follows, where arguments have a certain pace and rhythm, where both parties are concerned with maintaining the flow of the argument and do what they can to help the other carry the tune and stay in time Whatever argument as war means it could not be further from what argument as dance means This is such a fundamental shift in paradigm, as Kuhn would say, that really there is virtually no common ground between the two kinds of arguments.The only time this book comes close to being a self help book which, I have to admit, the title almost does sound like is when they discuss changing metaphors to change the nature of love They make the very interesting point that virtually all that might actually be all, by the way of the metaphors we use are used to help us understand something abstract like love in terms that have a concrete awareness for us, like war love is a battlefield, or a journey the course of true love never ran smooth or a container my heart is bursting open with love for you They talk of how we might trasform our notions of love by discussing love in terms of a jointly constructed and collaborative work of art Imagine how such as notion moves our understanding of love from something that either is or isn t, from something that happens to us beyond our control towards love being something that needs to be worked on and created and composed and jointly constructed Love then becomes something that is never actually completed, but rather is always a work in progress I really like this idea And notice, beyond the idea itself, that what is really happening here is that in changing the structure of the metaphor we get a series of consistent baby metaphors that each say something different and interesting about the nature of love A metaphor family on a consistent theme.And that is, in part, the point of this book The person who introduced me to this book was a teacher She said that once she had read this book she couldn t help thinking about metaphors and what they said, how they were like a window into the souls of what people actually believed In Orwell s Politics and the English Language he says that if people use mixed metaphors it shows they aren t paying attention to what they are saying And if they aren t paying attention to what they are saying, that probably means what they are saying contains some kind of barbarism their blind words blind to the images their words create display The authors here point out that this works in reverse too It is not so much that we choose our metaphors, it is rather that our metaphors choose us and tell us important things about what we think Our metaphors cohere They cluster together in like groups and in ways that Kuhn, referred to, in his Structure of Scientific Revolutions, with the metaphor to accrete like barnacles on the bottom of a boat, if I remember rightly.The teacher who introduced this book to me spoke of how once people in her profession had been referred to as teachers There were problems with this name, of course It implies a master servant relationship between teacher and learner that anyone who has spent any time at all being one or the other would know is hardly accurate Then they were called facilitators which has nice implications a bit like the word catalyst in chemistry, something that must be present for the reaction to take place, but isn t actually involved in the reaction itself in any way but perhaps this goes too far the other way, in that if teacher is too bold a term, facilitator is simply too humble But at the time she was working in TAFE and this was a time when accountants had only just taken over philistines with eyes directed towards the bottom line and with a tape measure always in one hand to ensure everything is appropriately calibrated It was then that she stopped being a teacher and facilitator only to became a package delivery officer Notice the metaphor here is virtually indistinguishable from a postal worker Notice too that education is literally about the transfer of knowledge I guess that is what fills the packages from one head full to overflowing with the stuff to the other head empty and ready for the receiving This is the perfect example of what Freire called the banking model of education, in yet another beautifully turned metaphor They make the interesting point that many of our metaphors are ontological in that they are born from our lived experience So, the reason why so many positive emotions are spatial where good up, is because we experience standing tall and upright as being positive and healthy Therefore we rise to the challenge, reach for the sky, pull ourselves up by our bootstraps or jump in the air when we are happy, but are brought down low, feel crushed under a terrible burden, shrink into the ground and so on when bad things happen The consistency of metaphors really is interesting.I ve gone on for too long but want to end with something quite different This really is a book overflowing with interesting ideas, but one that I particularly liked was their saying that not only is it impossible to truly paraphrase any sentence in English, but they even explain why If I say Jack killed Tom that is as strong a way as I can say that idea Any other permutation of how to say it will only make it a weaker statement Watch It is clear that Tom had been made a victim of Jack for one final time These two sentences say almost the same thing but all of the words between the subject of the sentence, the verb and the object make us wonder about the causal relationship between Jack and Tom dying Even the sentence Jack definitely killed Tom is weaker than Jack killed Tom We think adverbs will add to the verb , but what they actually do is almost invariably take away from a naked verb s power The rule they suggest, is that the further away in words you make the cause from the effect, the weaker appears the causal relationship between the two There is a long discussion in this book regarding Objectivism and Subjectivism and how they see the need for what they call an experientialist reconciliation between these two extreme positions not unlike Kant s reconciliation of rationalism and empiricism This isn t nearly as interesting as the first 24 chapters had been nonetheless, the last five or so chapters didn t take away from the power of the ideas contained here A wonderful book I highly recommend.

  3. says:

    This book is very frequently quoted by linguists I just looked it up on Google Scholar, and found a staggering 13517 citations Nearly everyone has at least glanced through it, and the ideas have permeated the field There was a nice Lakoff related moment during one of the invited talks at a conference I attended during the summer The speaker, who was giving an excellent presentation on loan words related to food, hadn t been able to resist putting in a slide where he glanced at an interesting side issue By the way , he said, this is a good example of the WOMAN AS DESSERT metaphor Many people nodded appreciatively.If you aren t familiar with Lakoff s work, just think about that for a moment Though it may temporarily stop you calling your loved one honey or sweetie.

  4. says:

    Here are my reading notes I thought the book was fine Mostly interesting in the first half The rest of the book contains a lot of repetitive statements and circular phrases The metaphor as a conceptThe way we talk is peppered with metaphors For instance, we talk of debates the way we talk of warfare.These metaphors often extend beyond a simple idiom and define a whole system of thought For instance, we think of time as money as a commodity and so we use a slew of expressions like budgeting one s time or using up one s time The opportunity cost of metaphorsThis view on concepts is opinionated and necessarily hides alternative views For instance, language about language contains the following metaphors quoting Michael Reddy Ideas are objects Linguistic expressions are containers Communication is sendingAll these points can be summarized as the conduit metaphor We put ideas in containers and send them down the conduit The listener then extracts the ideas out of the containers This way of thinking about language makes sense most of the time But it breaks down sometimes For instance, if context is required to extract the ideas, then the ideas cannot be seen as self contained objects.These metaphors we use are only partial matches for the underlying concepts they represent Higher level metaphorsSome higher level metaphors also exist For instance, the idea of up and down can be used to talk about good and bad, or healthy and sick, or sleepy and awake These metaphors are consistent and coherent across For instance, down is always sad and down is always negative across concepts sad sick sleeping.These higher level metaphors are based on experience and therefore vary from culture to culture These higher level metaphors always originate from a physical experience.Sometimes these higher level metaphors will clash Good is up, but a rising crime rate is not These clashes can be explained by assigning priorities to the higher level metaphors More is up wins over good is up So we say that the crime rate is up without thinking that it is a good thing.These higher level metaphors might be orientational up down far near left right Or ontological, for instance when we personify concepts debt is killing me , quantify concepts I need a lot of patience , assign cause out of anger , or single out aspects of a concept the brutality of war.Other metaphors are also shaped by our biases and experiences Personification when we attribute human characteristics to objects, we are constrained by the set of human characteristics we experience Metonymy when we choose to represent an object through only a part of that object, we choose the part that makes the most sense in the given context Metaphorical concepts as partial matchesThese metaphorical concepts only partially match to the underlying concept In this case, multiple metaphorical concepts can describe the same thing Ideas are both food that we might eat up or valuable objects that we steal.To talk about a concept outside the realm of our normal metaphorical concepts, we might also use an actual imaginative, creative, metaphor A metaphor that does not stem from our regular use of the language GroundingOur language seems to emerge from immediately felt experiences From the physical to the figurative For instance Harry is in the kitchen Harry is in the Elks Harry is in loveThese three uses of in physical, social, emotional are quite basic But it is clear that the first statement is the most immediate The other two are thin metaphors based on the meaning of being in CausationCausation is often seen as an undivisible concept But it can be developed from a physical experience direct physical manipulation Following physical manipulation, an object might move, change, evaporate, etc, and we can then develop causation as a metaphorical concept from that initial experience So one thing might turn into another grow into another give birth to another father anotherAll these metaphorical concepts are ways for us to talk about causation The direct experience of manipulation can be called a prototype An indivisible concept that we use to classify other concepts A foreign concept that closely resembles direct manipulation will be classified as such e.g using a stick to kick the cue ball ExperiencesWe can structure our experiences along different dimensions Usually we perceive Participants Parts Stages A linear sequence A purposeAll these dimensions come together to form a gestalt Two gestalts sharing the same descriptions for most of these dimensions will likely share metaphorical concepts Coherence and consistencyTwo metaphorical concepts might be consistent they can be mixed together to describe a concept But usually two metaphorical concepts will be merely coherent they will both cover a different aspect of the concept without disagreeing with each other Giving meaning to formThe form can also alter the meaning of the content More form leads to content if we repeat a word, we are emphasizing its content Closeness brings strength if two metaphors are related to each other, the closer they are in the sentence the stronger the link is between the two Me first orientation people are considered as erect, forward moving, active beings Thus these concepts will usually come first in expressions like up and down, front and back, or active and passive.It follows from these principles that a true paraphrase is impossible to achieve Different turns of phrase will yield subtle variations in meaning TruthWe then view truth as built up through metaphors that are themselves built up from other metaphors built up from the most immediate experiences We understand a statement as being true in a given situation when our understanding of the statement fits our understanding of the situation closely enough for our purposes loc 3055 This view of truth clashes with both objectivism and subjectivism It inserts itself in some middle ground This view of truth claims that there is no objective truth, as long as there is no universal metaphorical universe And it clashes with subjectivism in that truth is not individual, but rather shared by all the individuals that share similar metaphorical concepts.

  5. says:

    This book changed my life It has short chapters, 5 10 pages you can get most of what you need from chapters 1 3 and the epilogue It explains the structure of metaphor Turns out, at least for me, that theory is metaphorical, language is metaphorical, life itself is metaphorical So what does that do for us It makes it possible to realize the perspectivism is not an ideal to shoot for in some pristine Kantian space, but the very quantum material of social life In this recognition, I found a way to calm down, to converse with my enemy, to find the overlap between anger and peace, laughter and crying, life and death Or rather, I am finding it Lakhoff s work on metaphor and war was good in the 1990s first invasion of Iraq But his recent stuff strikes me as a bit jingoistic I emailed him about this since I took him to be a hero of mine But he never wrote back.

  6. says:

    I can t believe I never wrote a review for this book This is one of the most important books I ve had the privilege of reading It changed me.It s like a lightbulb went on, and a bomb went off It s profound magic for real Please Promise me you will read it.

  7. says:

    I got quite a nutritious repast out of this, though the didactic presentation and excessive repeating of elements of their arguments stuck in my throat sometimes Already you may detect me using a metaphor of reading as a meal of food Which builds on another metaphor of ideas as objects that can be conveyed as through a conduit a throat I can t think without metaphors, so some of the edifice here is often preaching to the choir to lean on another metaphor Yet I was inspired how the authors pushed so hard beyond the objectivist agenda in linguistics to convince me by the end that metaphor is a foundation for understanding in general It was also reassuring in their 2003 afterword to this 1980 publication to learn how this work spawned a large enterprise of research building on its floorplan to use both birth and building metaphors Both the title and blurb for this book caught my interest by pointing to the importance of metaphor beyond the common presumption that its uses just reflect poetical thinking and colorful ways of communicating human experience I was recently impressed how one of oldest written epics, The Iliad , brims with metaphors in almost every line The very arrows of war were hungry for their targets, and the whole shebang was kicked off with Sing, goddess, the wrath of Achilles The Odyssey builds its story out of a life as a journey allegory while strangely almost devoid of simple metaphors or similes I also still impressed from reading Joyce s Ulysses with his compression of a life journey to a single day while seeming to exercise the English language and Irish variants for its inherent content of metaphors With such priming I was ripe for a serious look at metaphor to use a mixed metaphor The philosophers over the ages have tended to seek rigorous language to convey their truths, and scientists, insecure over the limitations of language in capturing their principles, have pursued mathematical models whenever possible Metaphor, which essentially compares one thing or system with another, would thus seem like a lie to them from the getgo Step by step the authors walk you beyond that simplified outlook They work their way through a number of metaphorical systems and demonstrate how they are often a natural extension of our bodies such as grasp an idea to parallel physical holding and handling or of the three dimensional space of our perceptual framework such as many ideas framed in the up down dimension, as in his mood was up and the stock market is down Other metaphorical systems, such as argument as war or love as a journey , can be so rich in their parallels that the metaphors can take on a life of its own and even contribute to forging new modes of understanding and frames for action For example, like war, an argument can be seen as involving planning of the weapons and ammunition to use, scouting out and engaging an enemy, frontal assaults and retreats, bluffs and intimidations, feints and ambushes, etc No one can doubt the scheme is useful for understanding the meanings of argument from a non diplomatic perspective It is also easy to appreciate how true believers in the metaphor might act on the basis of that perspective and pursue the analogized skills of war to win arguments There is enough richness to the metaphorical scheme that you can use it in reverse to generate new insights about the subject being modeled At a mention by the authors of children fighting with the tyrannical logic of their parents as prime adopters of the metaphor, I am inspired to imagine what the counterpart in behavior would be for the nuclear option for escalating a battle over going to bed Another common metaphor to depict the realities of an argument, a thesis, or any complex plan uses elements from building and architecture In this case the metaphorical elements only cohere in limited ways to real systems For example, we garnish some understanding in talk of foundations and frameworks for an argument or plans, and we can even get some mileage with analogies to roofs and windows to metaphorically shelter the dwellers in a logical edifice from rain and to let in light from outside, but few would push the parallels into details like cupboards and staircases As a potent example of metaphors generating new aspects of knowledge, they cite the example of one of their graduate students from Iran who took the phrase solutions to a problem as part of a chemical metaphor She imagined the effort to deal with problems as like dissolving them in water, deriving meaning from the insight that one s problems can be hidden by immersion in other issues but they never really go away, as shown when the substances solubilized emerge again by precipitation Most other people in our society take recourse to the problems as puzzles metaphor and thereby operate on the presumption that they can be resolved with the correct solutions So much of our languages lend themselves to these kinds of metaphors that you can t avoid using them Think of our use of I see for I understand But the authors point out that many scholars of linguistics would say the connection with vision is simply an accident and that the word applied to vision and to understanding are homonyms The authors spend a lot of time attacking this outlook, much in the vein of reduction ad absurdum Thus, it seems patently unlikely that the apparent container metaphor implied through the myriad uses of the prepositional dimension of in versus out in the doghouse , in a clearing , in love out of the loop , outside help can be disputed by speaking of effectively different words as homonyms in each case And the simple example of buttressing an argument to convey provision of additional support demonstrates it ridiculous to imagine that the same word would be separately adopted for both the building context and that of contentious discourse The objectivist tradition places much emphasis on developing a system and method for using language to express truth But the authors take great pains to demonstrate how assessing the truth of statements requires understanding from human perceptual and cultural perspectives To parse the truth out of a statement like inflation is going up or the fog lies in front of the mountain is possible only by taking into account our metaphorical understanding of rising for increasing and imposing entity boundaries and orientations perceptual data from the world that is continuously variable Metaphor shines best as a means to understanding truth when it highlights parallels between abstract or conceptual realities and concrete ones from the physical world, our perceptions, and emotions For example, just think of the illuminating power of the metaphor of love as a mutual journey or of love is a kind of madness As another example, the metaphor of life as a story can convey a lot of meaning to us from the elements characters, roles, causal influences, stages etc That new insights can emerge from using such a scheme is illustrated when the authors take up Shakespeare s variant of the metaphor Life s a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing It highlights how under certain conditions the presumption of meaning from thinking life as a story can be false Against what he calls the dominating myth of objectivism and almost defeated myth of subjectivism, the authors subsume their conceptual theory of metaphor under the roof of a new myth of experientalism From my limited knowledge of the history of philosophy, I can see some borrowing from epistemology approaches of phenomenology and of the structuralism of Piaget and similarities to the interactional approaches to the nature nurture problem in psychology and preformation versus epigenesis in developmental biology In order for you to appreciate the thrust and scope of this work, I share some concluding statements, which are pretty accessible We see a single human motivation behind the myths of both objectivism and subjectivism, namely, a concern for understanding The myth of objectivism reflects the human need to understand the external world in order to be able to function successfully in it The myth of subjectivism is focused on internal aspects of understanding what the individual finds meaningful and what makes life worth living The experientalist myth suggests that these are not opposing concerns It offers a perspective from which both concerns can be met at once Within the experientalist myth, understanding emerges from interaction, with constant negotiation with the environment and other people It emerges in the following way the nature of our bodies and our physical and cultural environment imposes a structure on our experience, in terms of natural dimensions of the sort we have discussed Recurrent experience leads to the formation of categories, which are experiental gestalts with those natural dimensions Such gestalts define coherence in our experience We understand our experience directly when we see it as being structured coherently in terms of gestalts that have emerged directly from interaction with and in our environment We understand experience metaphorically when we use a gestalt from one domain of experience to structure experience in another domain.From the experientalist perspective, truth depends on understanding, which emerges from functioning in the world It is through such understanding that the experientalist alternative meets the objectivist s need for an account of truth It is through the coherent structuring of experience that the experientalist alternative satisfies the subjectivist s need for personal meaning and significance.From the Wiki entry on Lakoff Link , I learn how he was ensconced as a profession of linguistics at UC Berkeley for 40 years and advanced his cognitive theory of metaphor into the realms of political and economic science, neurolinguistics, and, even boldly, of mathematics, which he found rife with reliance on metaphors from top to bottom I enjoyed the bits in the piece which reveal him weathering vicious attacks from Noam Chomsky and Steven Pinker.

  8. says:

    This is a book that is going to shed a new light on the seemingly trivial subject of metaphors The beginning of the book wasn t exciting to me, so I almost put it down It felt too basic and uninspiring Luckily, the authors were probably just warming up the reader before getting into some serious matters As the book progressed, things like conceptualization, linguistics and psychology started to intervene, and it eventually became a very interesting read The way most of us think about metaphors would fall into linguistic perspectives, giving us an incomplete picture about the phenomena of metaphors This book is written for an audience from many years ago, but the ideas are still valid It has the power to enrich our understanding of how we actually live by metaphors while providing a completer and fundamental picture about what metaphors actually are and their workings on us I have learned one interesting thing among many others it is virtually impossible to comprehend totalities like our feelings or spiritual concepts without mentally and if needed, verbally breaking them down into partial metaphorical subsystems.One of the examples of what this book is capable of revealing can be about how metaphors are used in different life situations For instance, when we argue with someone, in most cases, we use war metaphors We defend our position, we prepare ammunition to shoot at the weak parts of our counterpart s argument, we don t give up easily, we gain or lose ground, and finally, we win or lose As the authors suggest, try a little experiment where you approach an argument as you would a dance How would this alter the situation and the way of thinking and talking This would be a completely different culture of thinking and conversation, where aesthetics, lead and follow, balance, timing, and the need to complete a dance in a gracious manner would be the primary concerns The kind of metaphors we employ in our thinking and conversations have a tremendous impact on how we experience things like arguments , carry them out, and talk about them In the case of an argument, we would actually experience arguing with the help of dance metaphors as something very different as compared to a conversation that employs war metaphors It would probably be a rather pleasant experience where people would part as friends, as opposed to revenge seeking losers of war Metaphors actually are than literally structures They structure virtually everything in regards to how we think about the world, how we perceive and respond to other humans and other creatures , how we communicate, and even how we feel Besides, I ve now learned, that metaphors have tremendous power They enable us to manipulate others and be manipulated though, not so easily after you have read this book By choosing an appropriate metaphor for your conversation, you might set the stage for it and conduct your communication in a way you wish, instead of giving the opportunity to your counterpart to disturb the harmony of it notice the influence from the book here.It was really interesting to see the authors hard quest against how the objectivists and the subjectivists view the world of metaphors Their view is basically grounded in trivializing the essence, the mechanics, the significance, and the benefits of metaphors in human life There s a bunch of very good arguments on what those philosophies miss out on regarding subject matter.The authors succeeded in installing a completely new feature into my brain Now, when I catch myself using a metaphor, I see those extra dimensions in my thinking and language use, and I understand much better why I chose a particular metaphor or how or in what ways my understating of the world was conceptualized This is really exciting This book revealed in what ways metaphors are the essential part of the human conceptualization apparatus This deeper level of understanding is one of the keys to understanding the psychology of our speaking and writing, as well as the line of thinking of our counterparts Metaphors are really powerful and essential tools in our cognitive toolbox, and if someone lacks a deeper understanding of their workings and how we actually understand the world around us, this book is a great place to discover it Can a book be a place

  9. says:

    I probably wouldn t have picked up this book on my own I was assigned it in college and hated it so much I never got beyond chapter 4 or so The margins of these early pages are so filled with embarrassing personal notes and stream of consciousness ramblings that I would be too embarrassed to sell it or give it away Whereupon it sat on a shelf until, lo all these years later, I decided to give it another shot.If you re interested in the intersection between linguistics and philosophy, you ought to read this book My 3 star rating is due to the fact that the first 20 or so chapters are still terminally, numbingly boring They consist almost entirely of examples of metaphors What Lakoff and Johnson are doing is laying the foundation for their argument expounded upon in the last several chapters that neither objectivism as exemplified by classic rationalist and classic empiricist philosophy nor subjectivism as exemplified by romanticism are up to the task of explaining meaning and that there is a third path to understanding truth an experiential synthesis We understand the world through our interaction with it Metaphors do not merely describe reality, they structure it.

  10. says:

    In a science fiction story by Ursula Le Guin a nonconformist ant writes, Up with the Queen The fictional translators add an annotation that the proper English translation is probably Down with the Queen In English, gaining power is associated with the up direction, and losing it with the down direction, though it might be the opposite in the fictional ant language Down with the Queen means Let the Queen lose power Lakoff and Johnson argue that such metaphors, or understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another are absolutely essential to language and thinking The preposition in literally means being contained inside an object a raisin is in the pudding The saying The proof of the pudding is in eating substitutes a process for an object Someone or something can be in a state in love, in shambles or in an organization or a collective in the army, in American politics Language is full of such expressions In fact, the previous sentence is metaphorical a glass can be full of tea, but how can a language be full of expressions People make sense of the abstract by tying it metaphorically to the concrete abstract relations to spatial orientation causation to manipulation In a corporate hierarchy, an ordinary employee may be seven levels below the CEO, who sits on the same floor in the same building, and who built the company as his grandchild built a sandcastle.All this is clear, but I am less convinced by the later chapters of the book, which switch from linguistics to philosophy and tie meaning to metaphors People usually distinguish between the literal and the metaphorical meaning, even if they use the latter in speech and writing In an exercise in a textbook of Russian by an American Slavist, a trolleybus fare collector thinks, I understand old trolleybusses and old trolleybusses understand me, but the textbook writer adds that the fare collector is a very bad philosopher Trolleybusses don t understand anything As is well known, trolleybusses are not people, but machines.